Chaplin carries a piano

Piano moving is a classic theme for physical comedy, and Charlie Chaplin has done it more than once.  Chaplin wrote and directed His Musical Career in 1914 while working at Keystone Studios. It is an excellent example for animators to study, so let me break down a fun scene for you.

Early in their studies, animators often create a scene of a character lifting a heavy weight.  It is a good way to develop an understanding of biomechanics, which will make the action seem realistic.  If you want to take it to the next level, make it entertaining. This is what we can learn from Charlie. The video below picks up where he enters the apartment with the piano on his back.  It’s important to know that the piano is a prop, so it isn’t actually heavy. This allows Chaplin to mime it in funny ways, rather than be “realistic”

Note the first shot of his entrance.  It’s set up so that the piano fills over 2/3 of the frame.  He stops to show how darn big it is. But that’s not all. Charlie has a partner, who is substantially larger, and should at least be helping.  Not only is he not helping, during this moment he is stopping to take a drink. The scene is all about making Charlie support this enormous load for as long as possible.

The old man wants to discuss where to put the piano, so he asks Charlie to wait a moment.

That leads to an argument with the daughter about where it should go.

When a decision is made, Charlie tries to lower the piano, which leads to this funny pose.

When he is finally relieved of the weight, he cannot straighten up. Another funny pose.

His partner must use his foot to push him back into a straight line.

And when he’s completely straight, he can’t just help him up, so they have another brief argument while his foot is still on his bum.

During this scene, Charlie gets no respect for all the work he is doing. But the relationship between the two piano movers is fluid. Earlier, Charlie got the best of the other guy, so there is no set rule to how things must happen between them.  It’s all about whatever is funniest for the moment.

 

 

 

Happy Birthday Stephen Chow

At this year’s Annecy festival, Pearl Studios announced that Stephen Chow was attached to direct an animated feature film based on the classic Monkey King story.

Chow is my favorite working movie director. He started as an actor in kids TV, then moved to features, and eventually began directing. His work is very character driven and full of slapstick and special effects. If you have never seen Kung Fu Hustle, Shaolin Soccer, CJ7, or God of Cookery, you have missed out.  While many directors start out with fantastic vision, only to weaken over time, his work has steadily grown in energy and style. He was cast to play Kato in the Green Hornet remake, but left over creative differences.  If he had been in it, I would have seen the movie.  Here are some quotes.

“Right from the beginning of my work, I wanted to capture a mass audience. And I love the unusual: you never see dancing villains. For me, there`s a fine line between comedy and drama; so it`s not just played for laughs. There`s a little romance in this story, too – something for everybody.”

“I used to cry when I watched Chaplin`s films. It was from him that I learned about the role of the underdog. And because I`m also from a poor family, this kind of thing moved me and I found that it also worked for the audience because most of them are like me – ordinary guys.”

“As many people have pointed out, the scene in ‘Kung Fu Hustle’ where the Landlady was chasing after me resembled the Roadrunner, … I loved to watch cartoons and read comic books when I was small. In fact, I still watch and read a lot of them now. They give me great ideas.”

Here is the scene.

Jackie Chan: Tips for animators

John Towsen has posted a couple of great videos from Jackie Chan on how he develops his action scenes. The videos are from a hard to find DVD “My Stunts”. But it’s all available on youtube in 10 parts. It’s totally worth watching to better understand what it takes to create exciting entertainment.

The great silent comedians were all first rate stunt men. Jackie Chan was a great stunt man who became a star. Watching him work is probably very similar to the way Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd made movies. It’s great to see a filmmaker who isn’t locked into a screenplay for his work. He’s clearly thinking about the audience and how to be entertaining, on a small budget.

Here is part 1.

In part 2 Listen for the phrase “let the audience know”. He choreographs to make it clear for the audience what he’s doing.

In part 3, we see a lot of falls. There are lots of exciting shots in this part.

Part 4 has examples of on set gag development.

In Part 5 they use toy cars to develop ideas for how to have cars perform stunts as if the cars were actors. Jackie’s stunt lab is introduced in this part.

Part 6 gets into wire work. It’s interesting how they use small wire effects to build up regular stunts. By making feet fly out from under an actor, they create a much more powerful impact. I wonder if animation needs more glass breaking.

Towards the end of part 7 he displays his research room, where he collects photos and ideas for stunts in future movies.

Part 8 is all about improvisation with whatever objects he finds, as well as adding flourishes and comedy and making it “pretty”. Setting up falls to have visual impact.

Part 9 shows the work that goes into getting good takes that have a natural rhythm, precise timing and good composition.

Part 10 Jackie shows how he demonstrates character in his action. “You have to be yourself, and more creative.”

I wonder how this compares with the Animation Mentor combat seminar?

Commedia dell’arte and animation

The commedia dell’arte was an Italian theater of improvisation, developed in the mid sixteenth century. The literal translation is “the comedy of artists.” Performing in the outdoors, they would work from a basic scenario, with none of the action or lines fixed by a script. The beginning and ending were basically understood by the actors, and what occured in between was created on the stage. In order to maintain the laughs, they had developed an arsenal of possible dialog and physical gags, called “lazzi” which the entire cast would be prepared for.

The cast of characters usually included a merchant, a doctor, a soldier, two lovers and two servants. Once an actor or actress had assumed a role, it was kept for life. They lived and breathed the parts and knew exactly what their character would do in any situation. Much of the comic action came from the two servants, who were called “zanni”, the origin of the English word zany. Usually the pair included a quick witted first zanni, and slow witted second zanni.

Here is a good intro video:

The classic commedia was an actor centric theater. The troupes traveled in search of audiences and worked hard for very little money. Eventually a man named Goldoni began setting the various stories into scripts and producing stage plays for serious money. Gone were the wild and unpredictable performances, Goldoni’s actors did as they were told.

I can see a relationship to animation here. Animators are actors, and are quite capable of producing great entertainment. Goldoni, like modern producers, was a smart businessman who capitalized on the commedia styling. I’m not saying one was better than the other, I’m just saying that the business of entertainment has been the same for centuries, and it’s good to understand the contributions of artists and impresarios alike.

Jim Henson: The Biography

If you are a student and want to create good animation, you are probably studying the fundamentals of the art, learning software, and developing your aesthetic judgment.  If you want to have a career in the industry, it would be wise to also learn about how other people have found success.  Reading biographies can provide some valuable insight into potential routes to take, or mistakes to avoid.  There are some good biographies of great animation directors out there, but I would like to recommend Jim Henson: The Biography by Brian Jay Jones as being every bit as relevant and interesting.

When Jim Henson died in 1990, I remember thinking of him as the Walt Disney of my generation. He had a seemingly endless imagination and the energy to bring his characters and stories to life. It’s hard for most of us to understand just how big an impact he had on puppetry in America and the world.  So I was surprised to learn that he did not grow up with a burning desire to be a puppeteer. What he did have a passion for was television.  TV blossomed when he was an adolescent, and he made it his goal to work at one of the local stations in Maryland.  He was an artist and had a creative drive.   At 17, an opportunity arose when one of those stations was looking for a puppet act for one of its programs.  He managed to get some of that work just before entering college.  He didn’t expect it to be his career.  But he was so good at it, and television was a medium hungry for talented people.  He kept up the work and made respectable money, and also went to college at the University of Maryland.

While puppetry has a long and intricate history, it had become stuck in old ways of doing things.  It was underdeveloped.  When Henson took it up, he wasn’t indoctrinated in those old ways, so he created his own direction.  Audiences and producers really enjoyed his sense of humor.  Small jobs led to bigger jobs, and soon he was able to not only support himself but also buy an old Rolls Royce.  He got into advertising and created commercials for the booming world of television.  Advertising has long been a way for creative people to build portfolios and bank accounts.

A good lesson came from his handling of dog food commercials that featured the puppet dog Rowlf.  The dog food company offered to buy the character for $150,000.  but Jim had held onto creative ownership of the character.  Puppets, like animated characters, can develop over time, and good ones can be even more valuable down the road.  Many of the Muppets you know now, had earlier incarnations before becoming stars.

And here is another good reason for not selling off Rowlf.  The puppet would have performed by someone else. It was likely the next puppeteer would not be as good.  Puppeteering is an art with standards as high as animation.  Muppets, of course, have a distinctive look, and if there was a badly performed muppet out there, it would have influenced how the public perceived them.  In time, the Muppet look would become the norm for puppets, but it was wise of Henson to try to control it as long as he could.

In my own book, Comedy for Animators, I point out that the history of comedy is the history of a business as much as an art. It is valuable for artists to learn from the experiences of others. This Jim Henson biography delivers a good portion of that to its readers.  You will learn of the struggles and mistakes as well the many famous successes of Henson’s career.  There is good information about his dealing with the Walt Disney company.

You will also learn a great deal about his personal life, including his many friends. This was a great introduction to the earliest days of Frank Oz’s career.  Henson also had artistic side projects he could afford to pursue.  Like many animators, he also didn’t want his puppets to be considered exclusively a children’s entertainment.

On only one topic did I think Henson took the wrong direction.  While working long hours on a project, his son Brian asked his father if he could ask for overtime pay.  Henson’s response was to not do that.  That he should put in as many hours as he needed to produce the best product, and bosses would appreciate it.  Jim Henson was a kind and fair man, and he naively imagined other bosses are also kind and fair.  (he, of course, had pretty much always been his own boss.)  What he should have said was, “Brian, I own the company and whatever value we build in it now will pass onto my children. You will get it back in the end.”

Of course, it was sad to know the ultimate ending for Henson’s life, and the details are not pleasant.  But I did appreciate the description of the complete memorial ceremony, as I remember seeing video clips of it on television. I was a celebration of a beloved man.  I was fortunate to speak to Jim Henson while I was in college.  He was a guest at an ASIFA east meeting and was very gracious to everyone.

The book has some good photographs, mostly at the end.  But I found myself hungry for more photos of his productions, so I pulled out my copy of Jim Henson: The Works to complement the excellent text in this biography.

Currently, this book is available in kindle format for $8.  I was lucky enough to get it for $2.  It’s a bargain either way.

 

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